A Comprehensive Guide to Beer Styles for Craft Beer Enthusiasts

A Comprehensive Guide to Beer Styles for Craft Beer Enthusiasts

A Comprehensive Guide to Beer Styles for Craft Beer Enthusiasts

Craft brewing, home brewing, and beer tasting have surged in popularity recently, yet the world of beer still revolves around a few fundamental styles. In this guide, you’ll enhance your understanding of the main types of beer, gaining insight into one of the world’s oldest and most beloved beverages.

A “Periodic Table” of Beer Styles

The Origins of Beer

While many countries claim to have brewed the first beer, the earliest evidence of barley beer production dates back to the Sumerians around 4,000 BCE in what is now Iraq. Though modern beer styles developed significantly in Germany during the Middle Ages, ancient civilizations like the Sumerians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Chinese all played a role in beer’s evolution.

The Beer Market in 2023

According to Statista, the beer segment generated a staggering $610 billion in revenue in 2023, with expectations of annual growth of 5.44% from 2023 to 2027. For entrepreneurs in the food and beverage industry, beer represents a lucrative opportunity. As noted by a Statista analyst, beer is the dominant segment in the global alcoholic drinks market, with the top five companies accounting for about 60% of global volume, half of which is led by AB InBev.

The Three Main Beer Types: Lager, Ale, and Hybrid

Beer is primarily categorized into two types: lagers and ales, differentiated by yeast type and fermentation process. Lagers use bottom-fermenting yeast at cold temperatures (35˚–50˚F), while ales use top-fermenting yeast at warm temperatures (60˚–70˚F). Some beers blend characteristics of both, known as hybrids.


Lagers are newer compared to ales, fermenting at low temperatures with bottom-fermenting yeast. The global lager market, valued at $328.4 billion in 2021, is projected to grow to $391.1 billion by 2027. Lagers are particularly popular in Europe and Canada.

Pilsner: A type of lager with hard or neutral water, pilsners are hop-forward, dry, and slightly bitter, making them ideal summer beers.

American Lager: Pale and highly carbonated, American lagers are crisp and refreshing, perfect for casual gatherings.


Ales are the oldest beer style, fermented with top-fermenting yeast at warm temperatures. The global craft beer market, encompassing lagers, ales, and hybrids, reached $117.1 billion in 2022 and is expected to grow to $221.5 billion by 2028.

Porter: Known for its dark color and roasted malt aroma, porters can be fruity or dry, depending on the malt variety used.

Stout: Similar to porters but less sweet, stouts often feature a bitter coffee taste and a thick, creamy head. Guinness is a famous example.

Blonde Ale: Light and crisp with mild malt sweetness and a hint of hops, blonde ales are perfect for summer.

Brown Ale: Ranging from amber to brown, these ales can have chocolate, caramel, citrus, or nut notes, with flavor varying by malt and origin.

Pale Ale: Known for its copper color and fruity scent, pale ales pair well with spicy foods. American Pale Ales (APAs) are hoppier and blend elements of traditional English pale ales with IPA characteristics.

India Pale Ale (IPA): Originally brewed with extra hops to survive long sea voyages, IPAs are now known for their bitter taste and diverse flavors, ranging from citrus to pine.

Wheat: Light and smooth, wheat beers often taste of spices or citrus. Hefeweizens, a common style, are unfiltered and hazy.

Sour Ale: Crafted from wild yeasts, sour ales have a tart flavor that pairs well with tropical fruit and spices. Varieties include lambics, goses, and Flanders ales.

Cooking with Beer

Beer isn’t just for drinking—it’s a versatile ingredient in cooking. Its carbonation and earthy flavors from hops and barley add depth to dishes. Beer tenderizes meat and acts as a leavening agent in baking. Dark beers like stouts and porters enrich stews and braises, while lagers enhance roast chicken and beer-battered fish. Most of the alcohol evaporates during cooking, so your dishes remain family-friendly.

We hope this guide to beer styles has whetted your appetite! To deepen your culinary and beverage knowledge, consider joining the EHL community and explore our courses. Cheers to discovering new brews and flavors!

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